It is a physical method of separating solids from liquids. This is achieved through the use of a medium which allows only the fluid to pass through retaining the solid components of the impure water. The clean water that remains once the process has taken place is called filtrate while the solid material trapped by the filter is called residue.
The material -filter has tiny pores that hold back the solid material and only allows the water to pass through therefore making the water clean. Drinking water purified through this process is not 100% free from germs, tiny microscopic disease-causing germs may easily pass through the filter pores to the filtrate. Therefore, filtration is only recommended in the removal of tangible and solid material in the water.
Filtered water could thereafter be boiled to kill such microorganisms capable of causing infections hence making it safe for consumption. Below is a picture demonstrating the whole process.
Boiling is known as the oldest and the most effective way of purifying water. It can be done by raising the water temperature to the boiling point for not less than one minute. Boiling is effective in killing protozoa, bacteria and other disease-causing organisms contained in the water.
The high temperature achieved through boiling water kills and moreover inactivates bacteria and viruses in the water. Before boiling of water, solid impurities are removed through filtration or settling. Filtration is a process I have discussed in the first subheading.
Settling, on the other hand, is done by allowing the solids to settle at the bottom of the container holding the water and then topmost water is transferred to a clean and empty container leaving the bottom water mixed with the solid residue. The water can then be purified through this method comfortably. Once boiled, leave the water to cool and then store it in clean containers.
This is the addition of chlorine or chlorine components to the water to make it safe for human consumption. Chlorine kills specific dangerous disease-causing bacteria and microbes that might be in the water. Chlorinated water averts being affected cholera, typhoid etc. Chlorine kills pathogens by breaking the chemical bonds in their structures once dissolved in water.
Water purified through this method is taken through steps of boiling and condensation. It is used to separate components on different boiling points. e.g. water and paraffin. The mixture is boiled, and the one with the lower boiling point turns to vapour and is condensed and collected in a different container. It may result in complete separation or partial separation.
UV water filters use electromagnetic energy of the light to protect humans by killing harmful substances in the water.UV light kills disease-causing organisms by altering their DNA and sterilising them hence cutting off their chances of reproduction.UV method of water purification has been tested and proven to be 99.99% efficient in water treatment.
6.Non-chemical stabilised Oxygen
Drops of stabilised oxygen are added to drinking water, and since they form a natural antibiotic, they provide clean drinking water that can be consumed immediately. The stabilised oxygen can be bought readily on the market with labelled directions for use.
In choosing the best method of water purification method at your home, factors such as cost, the effectiveness of the method used and availability of materials to set up a purification system should be strictly considered.